第六问:硅谷的教育系统发挥了什么作用?
72问皮埃罗 / 硅谷的秘密
第六问:硅谷的教育系统发挥了什么作用?

第六问:硅谷的教育系统发挥了什么作用?

导语:

感谢大家订阅皮埃罗·斯加鲁菲(Piero Scaruffi)的钛媒体72问.知识专栏《硅谷的秘密》。我是今天的提问者赵何娟。 在上次课程里,皮埃罗有提到在硅谷社会文化中,重视技术具有很大的影响力,那么教育对硅谷有什么影响呢?哪些方面的教育影响最大呢?硅谷的居民会有自我教育的习惯吗?什么样的教育活动在他看来是最好的?

皮埃罗:

That's a lot of things where there are many different opinions. I personally think that education is very important and again Silicon Valley is lucky that it attracts the best students from all over the world, I always joke with my chinese friends I always say, thank you very much china for sending so many students to Silicon Valley. It is true the Chinese students are always among in the top one percent. So I personal think that education is very important. 

我发现有很多人都有不同的想法。我个人认为,教育非常重要。硅谷吸引了全球各地最优秀的学生。我经常跟我的中国朋友开玩笑说:“谢谢中国把这么多优秀学生送来硅谷”。但我说的也是实话,中国学生确实最顶尖。我个人觉得,教育非常重要,有很多的证据能够证明这一点。

I personally think that university is very important and the education is very important, even high school, this is so much evident. In my opinion I still was the a went to a school in Cupertino. there was one of the first schools to offer classes on computers. Now you see that even simple things you see are important this was. Of course, other people who say, well there's so many people who never graduated and change the world you know the Google kids. So many people drop schools and these are people without a degree, so what's the big deal about studying? They didn't study but all the people in their organization did study. Those companies are full of PhD, graduates and they’re very very smart students. So I personally think that education is very important and it might be the most important is mathematics. First is that transistor, the computer, the internet all these technologies at the end of the day, mathematics is the foundation in artificial intelligence. A sufficient elegance is all computational mathematics.

即便是高中教育有很大的影响,我说在的高中是全美国最早提供编程课的学校。这些简单的小事都起着至关重要的影响。有一些人他们没有从学校毕业,但是就是改变了世界。比如说,Google的创始人。有人可能会觉得,读书有什么重要?你看这为Google这些大公司工作的人很多都是博士或者是研究生,虽然他们的创始人没有从大学毕业。他们都是非常聪明的学生。我个人觉得,教育很重要。其中最重要的就是数学。硅谷最开始是做的是半导体,后来是电脑和互联网。数学是所有互联网技术的基础。人工智能的基础也是数学,所有我认为数学很重要。

There are countries like china that have excellent education. What we call STEM, science, technology, mathematics, engineering, mathematics but then they don't invent as much as other countries. So if you ask me one thing it's important to have that basic education but I personally also would like education to be about creativity which is not so simple it's much easier to teach mathematics than to teach creativity how can I make sure that the child will be a creator not just a robot the repeats what you learn that's not so easy so it is a very difficult topic and I don't know. 

很多国家跟中国一样有很好的教育系统,我们把这个系统叫做STEM,也就是科学、技术、工程还有数学,但这些国家未必有很多的发明。所以如果你要问我基础教育的重要性,我个人会希望我们的教育能够让孩子有创造性。这一点很难做到。教数学很容易,但是教人去创造就很难了。我怎么样才能确保孩子能够创造,而不是像机器一样重复他们所学到的东西?所以这是一个很难的课题,我也无法解答。

So that's my personal feeling is that art, music, poetry, all these things can be very helpful because when you design a new computer you don't use music but music can open your brain to being creative. So personally I think that it's a mistake that education is only about science technology engineering and math. So now we talk about STEM where you have a name for art. I found that several things that mixes art technology and science, one is called the LASER. LASER is Leonardo Art Science Evening Rendezvous, and I started them in 2008 in San Francisco then then then I also started them at Stanford university and then friends started them in Washington, Los Angeles, New York, Toronto, London, Berlin, Paris. So now they take place in thirty universities of the world and the idea is very simple. 

我个人感觉是艺术、音乐、诗歌的都能帮助学生更具创造性。在你设计新电脑的时候,你用不上音乐,可是音乐却可以帮助你开发和利用大脑。所以,我觉得如果教育只有科学、技术、工程和数学的话,这就非常糟糕了。所以我们现在会讲到的把艺术与现有的技术相结合。我2008年,我在洛杉矶开办了LASER (Leonardo Art Science Evening Rendezvous),之后有在斯坦福、加州大学伯克利分校、巴黎、华盛顿、纽约、多伦多、伦敦、柏林等地的30所大学进行LASER TALK。

It's an evening where you put together artists and scientists, and it's a very simple idea but as you can tell now a lot of people like it. Now it could be that when I die people would remember me for the Lasers not for all the books I wrote.

其实我的理念很简单,就是把艺术家与科学家聚集在一起。真的是一个很简单的理念。很多人都喜欢这样的理论。所以我觉得如果我死了以后,别人不是因为我的著作才记得我,而是因为我举办的LASER活动(72问注:皮埃罗在硅谷发起的科技艺术节活动,类似于钛媒体在中国发起的科技生活节,集聚技术背景和艺术背景却由共同志趣的人一起活动)。

but it was actually very simple idea and these evenings are interesting for me because what first of all, I learn a lot of things that I didn’t know but it's interesting the audience you know we live in such a specialized society you are supposed to be a specialist in your job that people come to this evening and they all is like watching a Hollywood movie they are shocked. I didn't know that this exists now. You see, the scientist they look at the presentation of an artist and the shocked you know like they've just heard a new scientific theory. And they just watched some pictures or some videos an author and, you see, also scientists sometimes shocked they hear another scientist and they didn't know. 

这个理论非常简单易懂,我认为这个理论很有趣。因为我也学到了很多我以前不知道的东西,现在的社会分工很明确,你必须是所在行业的专家。其他领域的专家听课的时候,就像在看好莱坞电影一样震惊,我不知道这种东西存在。科学家们看完一个艺术家的展示会感到震惊,就如同听了一个新的科学理论一样。他们就只是看了一些图片、视频以及他们的作者。你会发现,科学家听到其他科学家讲到他们不懂的东西,他们也会感到很震惊。

Before coming here, there was one of these laser seminars and one of the most famous biotech scientist I was shocked to hear these are the guy talking about neuroscience. I mean, you are working in biology and you don't know these things about neuroscience. Yes, that's the world today. You know if you are a scientist you just doing your research you have your students helping you with your research and you don't talk to somebody the next building especially universities like Stanford they are so big they are becoming city states. You know and they don't talk to each other so so it's really interesting to see the benefits of making and forcing them to speak you know you are here the same evening you listen to each other. 

之前在一次LASER活动中,一个著名的生物学家听到神经科学的内容,很惊讶自己在生物领域工作,却不知道神经科学的知识。但现在的情况就是这样,社会分工明确,科研也是如此。如果你是个科学家,你只是做自己领域的研究,你的学生会帮你做研究,你也不会和其他教学楼的学人讨论问题。在斯坦福大得快赶上一个城市了,不同学科的人不会有沟通交流。所以很有趣的是,把这些没有交集的人聚在一次,让他们一起交流。

And of course, the audience some of the very recent one they came to listen to the biologists because he's famous is one of the first people who was using wearables to predict his health and so on. And but then this audience had to listen to the other two scientists and artists and so and their reaction is always “ah I didn't know that this exists” and then I found that the last festival life art science technology last festival and the last festival is a weekend event for young people basically were the artist actually create art with science and technology so you see really the new science and technology and the artist interpreted their own way, right? And these things in my opinion are really useful to foster creativity and if you go back to the story I told you the beginning of Silicon Valley that was actually very important. 

在最近的一次活动中,听众去听了著名生物学家的讲座, 他非常出名,因为他是最早使用可穿戴设备检查健康状况的人。但是听众听其他两个科学家和艺术家讲话时,每次都会感到很惊讶,觉得“噢,我竟然不知道某个事物的存在!”上一次生活艺术科技节就是这种的情况,而这个活动基本是为年轻人所举办的。在那里,艺术家是在用科学技术来进行艺术创作。艺术家也使用独特的方式来诠释技术。我觉得这些活动对提升我们的创造力是很有帮助。如果你再想一下我跟你讲过的硅谷故事,你就会发现艺术都很重要。

A lot of that technology was used originally not to make products and my favourite story is robots in Silicon Valley. Robots were invented for basically for Detroit. Robots were very stupid machine actually for a long time, they were just doing the same job over and over. In 1968 or I think1969, the SRI laboratory that I mention for the internet. It's alright developed this robot called the Shaky. Shaky was the first, let's call it general purpose robot, the first robber he was really trying to be intelligent. It was it was planning its actions there was a very interesting project and a lot of papers were published but then the robots disappeared from Silicon Valley. Now which is the big country for Robots Japan and Germany. 

很多技术发明最初不是因为商业目的而诞生的。所以我最喜欢的就是硅谷的机器人故事。机器人最早是为底特律发明的,开始它们都只是一些能完成重复工作的愚蠢机器。在1968到1968年期间,我提到的有关互联网诞生的同一个实验室SRI,它们发明了名为SHAKY的机器人。SHAKY是史上第一个为了智能化目的而存在的机器人。那是个有趣的项目,也有很多相关的论文。当时机器人做得好的是日本与德国,大湾区在机器人领域似乎出现了断层。

You know and it sounds like robots disappear from the bay area then in 2004 and 2005, you suddenly have a Willow Garage,the robot operating system is developed at Stanford and today Silicon Valley is one of the top areas for robotics. How is it possible to between 1969 and 2004, there was nothing and then suddenly we are again so strong? Well it's not true the robots disappeared actually. Because if you also consider the society. Actually, society like robots, it's kind of a strange thing but there were groups of people we just had fun with machines. And the most famous is the Survival Research Labs, the survivor research labs. 

在2004年2005年,硅谷突然做出了Willow Garage,其操作系统是斯坦福研发制作的。现在硅谷的机器人科技很顶尖。当时在1969年到2004年,硅谷在机器人领域还是一片空白的。但为什么我们会突然在这个领域变得这么强大?其实硅谷的机器人并没有消失不见。如果你考虑一下社会因素,硅谷社会很喜欢机器人,机器人很新奇,有一些人喜欢跟机器人玩耍,最著名的还是生存研究中心(Survival Research Labs)。

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  • 回复

    主要是大学专业,应该结合发展趋势。

    2018-05-24 14:20 via iphone
  • 很多中国人都觉得外国教育就是好,他们是开放,注重思维训练,但是中国的硬式教育并不是完全没有可取之处,可参考《中国合伙人》

    2018-05-22 10:50 via iphone
  • 回复

    创造性真的是很缺乏的。想到上学的时候音乐课和体育课总被占。。就算上课也是看电影。

    2018-05-02 22:40 via iphone
  • 回复

    希望多举办一些类似的科技节。太少了,也不够有趣。

    2018-04-27 22:10 via iphone

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