第二问:为什么说是一名记者“发明”了硅谷?
72问皮埃罗 / 硅谷的秘密
第二问:为什么说是一名记者“发明”了硅谷?

第二问:为什么说是一名记者“发明”了硅谷?

导读:

感谢大家订阅皮埃罗·斯加鲁菲(Piero Scaruffi)的钛媒体72问.知识专栏《硅谷的秘密》。我是今天的提问者赵何娟。今天皮埃罗跟我们讲了硅谷这个词的“发明”,以及和苹果这家公司的关系与渊源。很有意思的是,当我问皮埃罗在硅谷的缔造过程中,什么是最重要的时,他的回答竟然是:移民。下面就让我们来听,皮埃罗今天的讲课吧。

Much later the name Silicon Valley was invented in the seventies by journalists, and only basically the apple IPO is when people start paying attention, and until then there was no, there was no interest really what was going on there. So studying the society explains what is different about Silicon Valley. It was an area where different ideas were welcome and if frida in what differentiates poetry in painting in film or in accepting gays, whatever, and in technology. So I realized that technology is one just one of the things that the bay area does differently, but there are many, and technologies is one. So that started explaining the things, why people are different at work. People go to the garage , why the garage?

直到70年代的时候,记者发明了“硅谷”这个词,因为基本是到了苹果首次公开募股的时候,人们才开始关注硅谷(之后,硅谷突然受到了记者的极大关注)。在此之前,人们对硅谷发生了什么并不感兴趣。研究硅谷的社会才能知道它真正的特别之处。硅谷是一个欢迎不同想法的地方,它能够接纳在工作、诗歌、艺术、电影以及技术领域中的不同想法。大湾区有很多特别之处,技术只是其中之一。所以这说明了为什么人们的工作方式不同,他们在车库创业,为什么是车库呢?

If you go back to the fifties and the sixties in the seventies all those writers and artists politicians now there were so many people from different backgrounds they were living in very humble places, they were not working for big corporations, they were not working for the government, they were just independent, and they had the stranger ideas, strange projects. Most of them failed there was nothing wrong failing, so if you start thinking about the people who live there, you realize that it's exactly what we say about silicon valley, the garage. It's ok to fail, it's okay to have a crazy idea, impossible idea, you know. San Francisco was famous because young people wanted to change the world. Silicon Valley changed the world. Of course the people wanted to change the world in the sixties, mostly wanted peace and love, they were dreaming with the deal world, so it was a different meaning. But the spirit was “I want to change the world” . The spirit in most of the world was, I want a safe job, I want a salary, I work from eight to five, my boss tells me what to do and I'm very happy, I go home to family.

那个年代,有很多政客、艺术家和背景不同的人来到大湾区,他们都非常谦虚,他们没有为大公司工作,没有为政府工作,他们都是很特别的人,他们有奇思妙想,奇怪的项目,虽然他们有的人失败了,但是失败并没有什么错。如果你仔细思考硅谷的这些人,车库创业可以失败,他们可以有疯狂的想法,在他人眼里是不可能的想法。旧金山因想要改变世界的年轻人而出名,与此同时,硅谷也在改变世界。当然啦,60年代人所谓的改变世界,就是和平与爱,改变世界在当时有不同的含义。但他们的理念是我想要改变世界。当时在世界其他地方的理念是我要保住自己的饭碗,我需要工资,我8点上班5点下班,老板告诉我做什么,我就开开心心地去做,然后下班回家与家人一起。

San Francisco? Totally different idea. I don't want the boss I don't want a safe job, I want to do something really stupid and if I am poor for the rest of my life, okay, my friends will like me. Everything that we say about silicon valley today was already there, it just was not about technology, was something else. The other thing that is special today about silicon valley is that young educated people want to live there, right, it it's difficult to find somebody was born in the San Francisco bay area, so many immigrants from other states of the United States or from the rest of the world. Immigration is about poor families look at their refuges today in Europe coming from Syria in Africa their families their poor families they move because they are poor they don't have jobs they don't have food. There is a war same with the illegal immigrants in the united states, mostly men but men with families they need to feed their families, and they are poor they are not educated, that's the typical immigrant. I'm sure also in China this is typical. Who wants to move somewhere else? Poor family, they need to find jobs, food and so on. Well guess what, the Bay area was always a place where young educated people want to move.

在旧金山,人们的想法全然不同,我不要老板,我不用工作,我有愚蠢的想法,如果我要当一辈子的穷人,我也没关系,反正我的朋友还是会喜欢我。我们今天在硅谷看到的一切,当时已经存在了。所以并不只是技术。硅谷的另一个特别之处是,年轻、受过高等教育的人在那里生活。很难找到在旧金山湾区出生的人,那里有很多移民,无论是其他州过去的,还是其他国家的移民。通常,移民都是穷人。看看如今欧洲的叙利亚难民,他们都很穷,还会挨饿,他们来自饱受战乱的国家,就和当初的美国移民一样。那些移民多数是男人,他们都是需要养家糊口的人,他们很穷,也没有受过什么教育。我相信今天中国国内的移民也是一样的,穷人家庭,需要养家糊口。

A very different, it was always a different kind of immigration because the young people, especially college kids like the idea of going to a place where they are not expected to live the traditional life they go there and something different and is so much fun and you know, I'm free, this sense of freedom, all their people know that you pay a price for freedom. You don't have a safe job, where is your salary? Where is your home? Young people they just want this feeling of freedom and so already in the sixties, thousands of young educated people moving to the bay area. Today you see the Silicon Valley and you explain it very easily, Silicon Valley, of course they want to become billionaires but actually that kind of immigration was already there. So it's another way to realize that there was something in the society there was attracting people, because if you just wanted to have money, you could have, you know, found a better job, safer job in New York.

但旧金山的不同之处是那里有很多年轻且受过教育的人,这是一种不同的移民。因为这些大学毕业的年轻人想要住在一个无需过传统生活的地方,他们去到旧金山,有很多不同的东西,而且他们是自由的。这是一种自由感,我们都清楚自由是有代价的,你没有稳定的工作,你的工资呢?你的房子呢?但年轻人就是需要这种自由的感觉。所以在60年代,你会看到有很多年轻人移民到大湾区。今天你讲起硅谷就会说,太简单了,他们到硅谷都是想成为亿万富翁。但硅谷原本就有这些人了。所以硅谷能够吸引到人是有独特之处的。如果你想要钱,你可以在纽约找到更加稳定的工作。

The people who move to San Francisco were not poor, they did not need to move there. They were from a middle class family and they were going to college which means you stay in college get your degree you go you find a job, a good job. There was no need to move to the San Francisco bay area. But there was a sense was already attracting young people because of the different way of thinking, and today people go to Silicon Valley, the reason changed a little bit, because today people go to Silicon Valley also because they want a job with Google Apple and so on.

很多移民到旧金山的人都不是穷人,他们出生在中产家庭,去上大学。这意味着,他们上完大学,就可以找到一份好工作,他们不需要移民到旧金山湾区。但是旧金山能够吸引人才。现在人们去硅谷,只是因为他们想去谷歌、苹果或是其他企业工作。

But hopefully they are still thousands of young people who go there just because they see a place where people think differently, and for young people that inspiration and you have an education and the service bay area you can use it to create something new. In other places you can use it to obey your boss, so that's always been the big difference, the way you work in Silicon Valley and other places. In other places your job your typical job is the boss tells you what to do, Silicon Valley is a place where you use your education to create something new, and people would not be shocked, you know, what, you don't want the job in the big corporation?

但仍然还是有年轻人因为硅谷包容和鼓励不同的想法才选择去硅谷的。在旧金山湾区,你可以利用这些想法去创造新事物,而在其他地方,你只能服从老板的命令。你在旧金山的工作方式和在其他地方的工作方式是不一样的。在其他地方,你只需要照老板说的去做;而在硅谷,你可以利用你学过的知识来创新,而硅谷的人也不会感到惊讶。在硅谷,没有人为大公司工作,他们想尝试新鲜事物,这也是可以的。

Now I want to try this new thing, that's ok. Today is even too easy because today they also give you a lot of money in now there's all these venture capitalists who are always looking for new ideas. But you go back, you have to go back to nineteen sixty nineteen seventy, it was not so easy because all these venture capitalists did not exist. But the society was welcoming. The society was saying, ok you have a new idea, have a try, if it doesn't work, well, you'll be poor. So what? A lot of people chose to live in poor neighborhoods you know, but to be free to do what they wanted.

今天尝试新鲜事物并不难,因为很多风险投资人会为新鲜想法买单,但是在60、70年代则不是这样,非常不容易。但是还没有风险投资,但是硅谷的社会却欢迎新事物。硅谷的社会是,如果你有新的想法,那就尝试去践行它。如果失败了的话,你会成为一个穷人。但是他们觉得即便是贫困的生活也能够接。

Even when I came to Silicon Valley in nineteen eighty three, starting a company was a big sacrifice, now starting a company means you quit your job and you really work in a garage with no salary, and the vast majority failed. Of course today is getting too easy because today there's so much venture capital. In fact the start ups they get a lot of money in my opinion, they don't have a good idea, but there's so much money now it's become much easier, right?

最近也发生了改变。因为我1983年来到硅谷的时候,创立一家公司也是很大的牺牲了。创业意味着你要辞职,在车库里工作,还没有薪水,绝大多数的创业公司都失败了。如今有很多的风险投资,创业公司可以获得很多投资,即使这些公司并没有什么好的点子。但现 在有了那么多钱,一切就变得容易多了。

But if you want to explain how we got to twenty seventeen ,you have to realize what happened in nineteen seventy seven ,what happened forty years ago? How did this model develop? Why this model worked so well? What was the value of this model because now a lot of people around the world are trying to copy this model, but you will not copy it very easily of course. Risk, the first thing is risk. I mean who was taking the biggest risk with new technology? Not the big corporations, big corporations don't like risk. Big corporations introduce a product and they introduce another product that is similar a little different, same type of application, same customers, you know. For example, if the customer is NASA they keep thinking of selling to NASA if the customer is boring the keep thinking of selling to buying.

不过,如果你想知道硅谷是怎么变成2017年这个时候的样子,你需要知道1977年的硅谷。也就是40年前的事情,这个模式是怎么发展的?这个模式的价值是什么?很多人企图复制硅谷模式。首先是风险,谁在承担新技术的风险。不是大公司,大公司不喜欢风险,他们做出一款产品,然后再做出相似的产品,有相同的客户群体。比如说,他们开始把产品卖给NASA,他们就会一直把产品卖给NASA;如果他们的客户是波音,他们就一直把产品卖给波音。

Big corporations don't really like risk but all these crazy people in San Frasicco, for them risk is normal. So they they took more risks all the time, all the time, all the time. Steve Woznia, when he built the first apple he had the zero, zero guarantee that this would become a product, zero. Steve Jobs was more of a businessman okay, but even Steve Jobs, if you look at the pictures, he had the long hair. I asked somebody who met Steve Jobs when he was young, so what was your first impression of Steve Jobs and he said he smelled so bad. These people were not trying to have a regular job, right, they were taking a risk. Okay, let's try this thing and see what happens.

大公司并不是那么喜欢风险。但是旧金山的疯狂人士,他们愿意冒险。苹果创立的时候,Steve Woznia也不能保证苹果能成功。相较之下,乔布斯更像是一个商人。但如果你问那些认识年轻时候的乔布斯的人,他们对乔布斯的印象如何,他们会回答“乔布斯很臭”。所以,这些都不是寻求稳定工作的人,他们愿意冒险,尝试新鲜事物。

So everything I told you about the society explains why these people were so willing to take a risk and because they were willing to take a risk then Silicon Valley did something different with technology. The rest of the world didn't do that, the rest of the world was interested in selling a one million transistors. What do you do with the transistor? I don't care, I just sell them, make them in a big factory. Silicon Valley, this young people look at the transistor, start to think what can I do with this thing? So they were willing to take a risk, they were willing to use their ideas, so that society was encouraging them to experiment them. Actually today we look at the society and realize it was a huge laboratory, you know, the biggest laboratory at the time was Bell Lab, maybe that one thousand people two thousand when the bay area had one million people, you know, and a lot of them were motivated to try something differently.

我和你提到的所有有关社会的东西,都说明了为什么他们原因冒险。正因为他们原因冒险,硅谷才能在技术方面做出不同的东西。其他地方则不同,他们关注的是怎样卖出10亿个晶体管,才不管晶体管有什么用途,只要卖出去就好啦。然而,硅谷的年轻人关注的是他们可以用晶体管做些什么不一样的事情,他们愿意冒险,愿意尝试新事物。旧金山湾区的社会引导他们去做实验,我们今天回顾过去,就会发现旧金山是一个超大的实验室。AT&T最大的实验室,有可能一两千人,他们都在冒险,而但是旧金山湾区的人口只有一百多万。他们都受到鼓励,尝试做不同的事情。

So then the official history of Silicon Valley is that you have one professor at Stanford who encourages students to start their company. Fred Terman had a number of students, the most famous are Hewlett and Packard, he encouraged them to start their own company. Then William Shockley was one of the inventors of the transistor and decided to move to Palo Alto. Why? Because his mother was sick. He then hired a few engineers, and his engineers started Fair Child, and some of the engineers of Fair Child started Intel, and started many other semiconductor companies. This is all true. But the question you have to ask is why it didn't happen in New York, why did not happen in Germany?

硅谷的一个官方历史是斯坦福大学的教授鼓励学生去创业。最著名的是弗雷德里克·特曼(Fred Terman)与他的学生比尔·休利特、戴维·帕卡德,这两个学生成立了惠普。威廉·肖克利(William Shockley)是晶体管的发明者之一,他为了重病的母亲而搬到加州的帕罗奥图。肖克利雇用了一些工程师创立了仙童公司,后来仙童公司的工程师又创办了英特尔,或者建立了很多半导体公司。你可能会问为什么德国或者纽约没有这些事情?

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  • 车库创业。。。这很硅谷。

    2018-05-27 15:00 via iphone
  • 成功的地区都有一个特性:包容。接纳一切不同的声音,这点可能是现在中国发展还比较欠缺的。方向

    2018-05-08 07:20 via iphone
  • 回复

    小时候一直认为硅谷,是很严肃的地方。每个人都很忙而且都是高智商人才,反差有点大。

    2018-04-28 17:40 via iphone

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