If I have to think of a great invention in the last ten years, I would say in biotechnology. So first let me tell you that, now we speak a lot about a Artificial Intelligence, I'm very happy, I make money if you speak about Artificial Intelligence, because I was an Artificial engineer in the 80s, so I've been in this are for thirty years. I'm very happy people think that Artificial Intelligence is the most important technology.
But the honest truth is that I don't think it's the number one technology today if you read my book Human2.0 where I talk about all these technologies: Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, 3D Printing, Wearables, Nano tech and biotech. If you read that book, you will realize that I think biotech is number one. Biotech number one in potential business, in the way we will change our lives. To me there is no comparison. So if I think of inventions in the last ten years, I don't think of software, I think of biotech.
In 2007, Yamanaka in Japan discovered how to create a stem cell artificially. In his study, he discovered the Four Yamanaka Factors, long story. But now there's a lot of studies about longevity - extending your life - which did use the Yamanaka Factors, and his technique of creating stem cells was very important because now we don't need embryonic stem cells, we can make as many stem cells as we want in the lab. That's a very important event.
And I mean there's been discoveries just now, the first gene therapy has been approved gene therapy has been approved. Depends on when you want to start the invention, but the first one in the United States has been introduced just now, two months ago I think. The very first one was maybe in France or in Japan and I remember it was last year. So this will change medicine if it works. By this will change medicine, I mean they will find out that if they change one gene in your body you are going to live twenty years more, and this is one of the greatest inventions of the whole world.
There's a new technical term IBG, invented a few years ago., This is the consequence of Yamanaka studies. They can take a skin cell and turn it into a stem cell and then turn it into a female egg or a sperm. So couples, if they cannot have children in the future, they will just take skin cells then create a sperm and egg and turn it into a baby. Ok this sounds great right. Well guess what, they can take two cells from your skin and make them male and female cells, and put them together and you can make a baby and that baby you will be the mother and the father. This has been done in the lab physically. Mice were born using this IBG. This has been done last year or two years ago. It takes a long time before it becomes to you, a long time.
So if you ask me what are the biggest inventions in the last ten years, I think of biotech, I don't think of software, I don't think Artificial Intelligence, I think of biotech. Deep learning was invented in 2006, this was important, but I think the potential is much bigger. And even in Silicon Valley today, everybody talks about software, but actually we have a lot of biotech start-ups。