第十九问:最近十年什么才是最具创新性的发明?
72问皮埃罗 / 硅谷的秘密
第十九问:最近十年什么才是最具创新性的发明?

第十九问:最近十年什么才是最具创新性的发明?

导语:

感谢大家订阅皮埃罗•斯加鲁菲(Piero Scaruffi)的钛媒体72问.知识专栏《硅谷的秘密》。我是今天的提问者赵何娟。前几期,我们都学习了如何认识发明和应用发明的显著区别,硅谷和以色列的显著不同,以及为什么硅谷这种并不以发明为主流的地方,如何激发年轻人的生态?那么就进一步延伸出来一个问题,最近10年什么才能称得上最具创新性的发明呢?

正文:

If I have to think of a great invention in the last ten years, I would say in biotechnology. So first let me tell you that, now we speak a lot about a Artificial Intelligence, I'm very happy, I make money if you speak about Artificial Intelligence, because I was an Artificial engineer in the 80s, so I've been in this are for thirty years. I'm very happy people think that Artificial Intelligence is the most important technology.

如果让我想最近十年最具创新性的发明,我觉得很可能是生物科技。首先让我说明一下,人们总是在说人工智能,这让我很高兴,只要有人说起人工智能,我就能赚钱。因为我在80年代是一名人工智能工程师,并工作了30年。我很高兴人们认为人工智能是最重要的科技。

But the honest truth is that I don't think it's the number one technology today if you read my book Human2.0 where I talk about all these technologies: Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, 3D Printing, Wearables, Nano tech and biotech. If you read that book, you will realize that I think biotech is number one. Biotech number one in potential business, in the way we will change our lives. To me there is no comparison. So if I think of inventions in the last ten years, I don't think of software, I think of biotech.

但事实上,我不认为人工智能是所发明的最重要的科技。如果你读一下我的书《人类2.0》,里面有说到各种科学技术:人工智能、虚拟现实、3D打印、可穿式科技、纳米科技、生物科技等等。如果你读过这本书,你就会发现我认为生物科技才是最重要的技术。它在商业应用上的可能性以及改变人们生活方式等方面,我认为是不可取代的。因此要我说过去10年最重要的发明产品,我不会想起其它领域,一定会是生物技术。

In 2007, Yamanaka in Japan discovered how to create a stem cell artificially. In his study, he discovered the Four Yamanaka Factors, long story. But now there's a lot of studies about longevity - extending your life - which did use the Yamanaka Factors, and his technique of creating stem cells was very important because now we don't need embryonic stem cells, we can make as many stem cells as we want in the lab. That's a very important event.

在2007年,日本的Yamanaka先生发明了如何人工制造干细胞.在他的研究过程中,他发现了4种Yamanaka因子,说来话长。而现在有很多的研究集中在长寿这一方面,特别是使用Yamanaka因子进行寿命延长的研究。Yamanaka先生对于干细胞的研究是尤其重要的,因为现在我们不再需要依赖于胚胎干细胞了,我们可以随意制造干细胞,因此这是一项重要的发明。

And I mean there's been discoveries just now, the first gene therapy has been approved gene therapy has been approved. Depends on when you want to start the invention, but the first one in the United States has been introduced just now, two months ago I think. The very first one was maybe in France or in Japan and I remember it was last year. So this will change medicine if it works. By this will change medicine, I mean they will find out that if they change one gene in your body you are going to live twenty years more, and this is one of the greatest inventions of the whole world.

而最近,第一个基因治疗法通过了法案。取决于你怎么判定何为第一,但是美国首例基因治疗是在两个月之前通过的,而全球第一例很可能是欧洲或日本。如果该法可行的话,它会改变整个医学界,他们很可能会发现只要改变一条基因,你就可以延长20年寿命。这将会是全球历史上最伟大的发明。

There's a new technical term IBG, invented a few years ago., This is the consequence of Yamanaka studies. They can take a skin cell and turn it into a stem cell and then turn it into a female egg or a sperm. So couples, if they cannot have children in the future, they will just take skin cells then create a sperm and egg and turn it into a baby. Ok this sounds great right. Well guess what, they can take two cells from your skin and make them male and female cells, and put them together and you can make a baby and that baby you will be the mother and the father. This has been done in the lab physically. Mice were born using this IBG. This has been done last year or two years ago. It takes a long time before it becomes to you, a long time.

几年前,有一项称为IBG的新技术,它也是Yamanaka研究的应用之一,它可以将皮肤细胞转变成干细胞,然后再将其转变成卵子或者精子,那么将来如果夫妻不能生育,他们只需要拿自己的皮肤细胞就可以变成受精卵进而变成宝宝了。这听起来很厉害对吧,更厉害的是,他们还可以在你的皮肤上提取两个细胞,将其变成精子和卵子,然后分化成宝宝,那么你将同时是宝宝的爸爸和妈妈。这一切目前还只是在实验室进行,他们两年前成功使用老鼠皮肤细胞分化出老鼠宝宝,当然距离临床试验还有很大一段距离。

So if you ask me what are the biggest inventions in the last ten years, I think of biotech, I don't think of software, I don't think Artificial Intelligence, I think of biotech. Deep learning was invented in 2006, this was important, but I think the potential is much bigger. And even in Silicon Valley today, everybody talks about software, but actually we have a lot of biotech start-ups。

因此你要问我过去10年最伟大的发明,我一定会说生物科技,而不会是人工智能。在人工智能领域,人们在2006年发明了深度学习,这很了不起,但是生物科技的潜能更大。在现今的硅谷,人们好像说的都是软件,但实际上硅谷还有很多生物科技初创公司。

【版权归钛媒体所有,未经许可不得转载】

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