第四问:硅谷新一代企业家和第一代发生了什么变化?
72问皮埃罗 / 硅谷的秘密
第四问:硅谷新一代企业家和第一代发生了什么变化?

第四问:硅谷新一代企业家和第一代发生了什么变化?

导语:

感谢大家订阅皮埃罗·斯加鲁菲(Piero Scaruffi)的钛媒体72问.知识专栏《硅谷的秘密》。我是今天的提问者赵何娟。在这一讲中,皮埃罗主要讲述了硅谷一代代企业家的变化与成长。第一代的硅谷创业企业家,都跟半导体有关,也是“硅谷”的起源;到后来80年代就开始有了软件创业公司,再后来大部分软件公司都阵亡了,再有了90年代.COM的一代,到了2000年,硅谷开始逐渐诞生了今天的巨无霸,Google、Facebook等等,这些企业家诞生于不同机缘,都也都面临着不同挑战。下面就听皮埃罗详细来讲讲吧:

So there are many generations in my opinion,I just now just two it's really there their original semiconductor industry why is it called silicon, because originally was all this start-ups were about silicon, so that's the original one. And then in the eighties you see the first software start-ups, most of them fail and then in the nineties, the “dot com generation” and then in the two thousand so you have Facebook Google and Twitter, all the ones are famous now. So it's really several different generations and there's been, I think each one had its own, its own challenges.

我认为硅谷有很多代企业家,不仅是第一代跟第二代,这里有最初制造出半导体的企业家。硅谷最早的创业公司都与半导体有关,所以硅谷也由此闻名。这些才是硅谷最初的企业家。在80年代,开始有软件创业公司,大部分软件公司都阵亡了。在90年代有“dot-com一代”。到了2000年,硅谷有Google, Facebook等等。你可以看到硅谷是有好几代企业家的,他们也面临着不同的挑战。

The original ones were very fewer. Actually, this not that's not thousands of startups it's dozens and to me, it gets really interesting with the generation of the personal computer. Because that's really when the number of ideas multiply very badly. Because the first generation was really focused on semiconductors. So the first generation was really focused on the semiconductors. That's why it's called Silicon Valley. A lot of them were from Fair Child. So this company was very influential. And I think the military investment and NASA were very important to keep that generation alive. 

第一代企业家的规模没有那么大,那时还未上千家企业,只有几十家。我个人认为有趣的是做出个人电脑的这一代企业家,因为那时不断出现新的想法。而第一代企业家主要就是在做半导体,而且很多人原来都在仙童(Fair Child)工作。对硅谷的第一代企业家而言,军方和NASA的投资很重要。

So it was not a generation that was really thinking of the world, it was still a relatively local kind of business then the generation of the starts with basically with the Apple and the first software companies. So it's there the age of Apple and Microsoft. Microsoft was in Seattle but still in that generation so that one gets a little more interesting because that's when they are ideas start multiplying. It's not only silicon and that's still a generation that is risking a lot is taking a lot of risk. There was little venture capital if you don't work for them for their military for the government was giving you the money. 

所以第一代企业家并没有过多地考虑“工作”这回事,他们的商业受到更多的局限。第二代则是以Apple和最初的软件公司为代表,可以说是Apple与微软的时代。微软是在西雅图。这一代企业家也很有趣,因为这时开始出现更多的新想法,并不只是限于硅谷。第二代企业家敢于冒险,当时也没有什么风险投资,他们也没有为军方或者政府工作。

Then you have the dot com and the dot com so that's the internet right that's the first boom on the internet with a dot com you at that point you have venture capital it's a little easier to start a company is that's a generation that has a simple problem how do I make money out of this new technology. A lot of people had the feeling that the internet allows you to reach millions of people. Now it's actually billions of people. Ok, but how do you make money. The vast majority of those com start ups failed. The vast majority. 

接下来才是“dot.com”这一代,这时已经有因特网了,也有风险投资,所以创业开始变得容易,他们会思考的问题是:如何利用技术来赚钱?他们知道可以通过网络接触到上百万人,但是怎么赚钱?很多互联网泡沫时代的创业公司都倒闭了。绝大多数都失败了。

That the 2000, actually, that the new generation that's too easy. Because now there is a lot of venture capitals, the dot coms were actually right, most of them fail but they were right. There is a lot of opportunity there now we know it now. In china you have Tencent, Alibaba, Baidu, right? So easy to make money now and the internet so they were right so now there's too much money it's relatively easy to start a company and we have big companies. That’s another big difference, big, big difference. In the first generation we don't have any big company in Silicon Valley. Maybe the biggest actually was a Locket that you don't know makes missiles or military company and then probably HP was one of the biggest. 

2000年之后的创业公司就容易多了,因为有太多的风险投资了。虽然大多数互联网泡沫时代的创业公司都失败了,但是我们现在回头看,会发现他们是对的,当时的确有很多的机会。在中国,你们有腾讯、阿里巴巴、百度,他们也赚了很多钱。他们做出了正确的选择。现在有太多资金,创业也很容易,现在有很多大公司,而在硅谷早期,并没有那么多大公司,有一家公司你可能不知道,它会为军方工作,制作导弹,规模算大的还有惠普。

Today's generation grows up with Google number one in the world Apple number two number one in its field in to number one is semiconductors Oracle , number one in ERP software Salesforce,number one in cloud computing. Facebook number one in social media twitter party number two or three so now you grow up in a Silicon Valley where you have all these number ones Airbnb, Uber. 

今天的硅谷有很多大公司,Google是世界第一,Apple是第二,英特尔是半导体领域的第一,Oracle 是ERP软件的第一,Salesforce是云计算领域的第一, Facebook是最大的社交媒体,Twitter是第二或者第三的社交媒体。所以现在我们成长在一个有很多大公司的环境之下,我还忘了提一些公司,比如说Airbnb、Uber等等。

I'm forgetting some we have so many number ones now that we even difficult to list them that's obviously totally different from the federation first generation they were Silicon Valley when I went to Silicon Valley in nineteen eighty three silicone was famous for small companies unfortunately today a lot of people think of Silicon Valley as big companies I always criticize the tourists who come to Silicon Valley and want to take a picture in front of   Facebook, in front of Apple. That's no Silicon Valley. I know you have big companies in in Detroit your big companies you know France has whatever but Silicon Valley the small garage so today the situation is totally different and the spirit of Silicon Valley is a little distorted. 

我很难给出完整的大公司清单。这就与多年前的硅谷不同,我1983年去硅谷的时候,基本都是小公司。然而,现在人们提到硅谷就会想到大公司。我经常批评那些去到硅谷就到 Facebook或者Apple大楼门前打卡拍照的人,这不是硅谷。底特律有大公司,法国也有,而硅谷有的是车库创业。我认为如今的硅谷精神虽然还在, 但已经有点扭曲了。

导语:当听到皮埃罗说硅谷精神虽然还在,但已经有点扭曲了,我还是有点震惊的。皮埃罗先生为什么会这么说呢?继续听他说吧。

I think a lot of things changed. What do remain is the original spirits because it’s still there. We still have a lot of startups with the with ideas with different things. Today one thing that is different is money. You can easily find a venture capitalist usually, an angel who gives you money to start a company there was not the case, even in the 80s even during the dot com the crazy bubble it wasn't like this. 

我觉得有很多的变化,但硅谷的基本精神没有改变。硅谷现在还有很多创业公司有很好的想法。我认为,现在不同的之处在于资金。现在有很多风险投资,通常是天使投资给你钱。所以更加容易获得资金。当然啦,现在的人创业的精神是不一样的。然而,80年代的情况完全不同。即便是在互联网泡沫年代,获得投资也不是那么的容易的事情。

Now it's too easy to get the money, so of course the spirit of the people who started a company was different in the 80s. You really had to risk, you really had to quit your job you don't have a salary you work six months for free nobody paying you and you have to succeed. Today is a little too easy to get money, they will pay your salary sometimes a very good salary. So sometimes I asked them what kind of start up is this. 

现在的问题是投资的资金太容易拿到手了。以前在硅谷创业确实很辛苦,要承担很大的风险。在80年代,你确实是要辞去稳定的工作,连续工作六个月,而且还没有工资,所以你必须得成功。但现在投资人的钱太容易拿到手。很多创业的人士因此有了很多的钱。

Start up to me means you suffer. Now you don't suffer, you buy a nice car, so that's not a start up to me. The other difference is that this big corporations now that we have this big companies they really change their spirit. Why? Because they can buy the ideas. In the previous generations we did not have anybody buying the new idea and so you had companies like Apple Google, FaceBook had to grow by themselves, right?

对我来说,创业意味着要吃苦,而现在的人创业不但不需要吃苦,而且还能购买豪车。对我而言,这根本就不是创业。我认为现在硅谷的大公司已经改变了创业的精神。为什么?因为他们只要花钱就可以买到好点子。在前几代的硅谷创业时期中,你花钱也买不到好的想法。

But now these companies Apple, Google, FaceBook have so much money, so much cash they can just buy the idea. I look at from the point of view of the personal ways, in the 80s or 90s, if you had the idea, it's your responsibility to grow it. You have to find a way to make it bigger and bigger and bigger and eventually become number one. 

Apple、Google和 Facebook都需要依靠自己才能成长,但现在Apple、Google和Facebook都已经是很大的企业,拥有很多的现金,可以去购买好的想法。但在80年代或者90年代,如果你有好的创意,你有责任去把这个想法做出来,把它做好做大。

But now if you have an idea you don't need to do all that, Google and FaceBook will come and will give you money and will tell you, “if you want to get rich you can be rich right now this is the money give me your idea. Bye bye.” That, of course, change their whole ecosystem because before there were all these people within your idea trying to develop their idea and thinking they will spend the next ten years of my life doing this now. You have all these people with a new idea thinking, I have to convince Google that is a good idea Google will give me the money I get rich today bye bye. don so that's that's, that's possibly the biggest change in the ecosystem and so. 

现在如果你能有一个想法,你并不需要去把这件事情做好。比如说Google或者 Facebook会因为你有一个好的想法,就找上门花费巨资你的想法,告诉你“这是给你的钱,我们拿钱来购买你的想法,你就可以走了。”这弄坏了硅谷的生态系统,因为在以前有想法的人需要时间把事情做好,他们会花10年的时间来实践。但现在的人有了好的想法以后,就会想办法说服Google这些大公司投资,获得巨资,之后跟这个想法说再见。这也许是Google等大公司对硅谷生态系统的最大的影响了。

So a lot of us are thinking how can you have a new Apple or a new Google today I mean these giants will buy it right away no company has a chance to grow up and become a challenger right I do not the answer is yes no. I don't know but that's the concern we have. And then one thing we all the people I met on like is that we see too many young people who want to come to Silicon Valley to work for a big company. That's a little sad because we grew up thinking of Silicon Valley where young people come, they have an idea and they want to start the company, right? 

很多人都会思考,时至今日怎样才能再有Google, Facebook那样的大公司?什么好的想法都会被这些大公司收购。现在的问题是没有创业公司能够成长起来,挑战既有的大公司。我不知道如何回答这一问题,但我们确实有忧虑。我们老一辈人不喜欢现在很多的年轻人来到硅谷,就是为了给大公司去打工。

But now there are also many many who come and only want to work for Google and Facebook and if you send an email home and tell your parents or I got a job at  Facebook your parents are very happy right what's wrong with that well nothing but that's what used to happen on the East Coast, in Europe, in China. Silicon Valley was not like that. You write home and you tell your parents I don't have a job but I have a great idea, your parents are panic. That was the origin Silicon Valley. So today too many young people come and I just want a job and when you meet them you can tell.

我们会感到失望,因为以前的年轻人来到硅谷是想创业,而现在的年轻人是为了给Google和 Facebook打工才来硅谷。如果你给家里的父母发邮件说:“我给 Facebook工作了!”父母会感到非常欣慰。你可能会问:这有什么问题呢?确实没有问题。但以前这些事情都是发生在欧洲或者中国,硅谷完全不同。以前在硅谷,年轻人会给家人写信说:“我现在是个无业游民,但是我有很好的点子。”父母收到信会非常担心,但这才是硅谷最初的样子,所以现在很多年轻人来到硅谷,为的只是想要找一份工作。这种差异很明显。

You know when I came in anybody I met in Silicon Valley. It was an interesting person. sometimes I didn't like them because they were to aggressive sometimes I didn't like them because I thought that’s a very stupid idea. But everybody was interesting and today sometimes you stop somebody in the street and you ask just a simple question where's the library or whatever and you meet people or just not intelligent, they just know they work for a big company, Google or whatever.,but you ask them a simple question you can tell these people are not intelligent.

我80年代来到硅谷时,我遇到的人都很有趣。我不太喜欢一些好斗的人,或者是有愚蠢想法的人,但每个人都很有趣。今天你在硅谷街上随便遇到一个人,问个问题,你可能会发现对方并不聪明,他们是在为Google或其他大公司工作。

They go to work and they obey the orders so we have to many of these now. I know it sounds funny but that's not Silicon Valley. They are the personnel that just goes to work, to take orders obey orders, is not the typical personal Silicon Valley. But unfortunately, now that we are so many big companies it is becoming the norm and that's so someone older people don't like that norm.

现在硅谷有太多稳定工作,墨守成规的人。我知道这听起来很可笑,但这并不是硅谷应有的样子。硅谷典型的人才不是那些有稳定工作,只会服从老板的人。不幸的是,现在有太多的大公司,导致硅谷的常态已经变成在大公司工作,服从上级命令。我们老一辈在硅谷打拼过的人都不喜欢这种常态。

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  • 回复

    风险投资的出现究竟是弊大还是利大,企业要怎么控制这个度。这可以是一个很好的辩题。

    2018-06-02 07:10 via iphone
  • 回复

    让我想到之前高晓松对清华的评价,难道硅谷也要出现盛极而衰的现象了?

    2018-05-15 18:30 via iphone

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